Lean vs. Traditional IT Governance


Traditional IT governance typically focuses on a command-and-control, documentation-based approach. Teams are expected to adopt and then follow corporate standards and guidelines, to produce (reasonably) consistent artifacts, and to have those artifacts reviewed and accepted through a “quality gate” process. The following diagram overviews such a process for an IT delivery team – in practice we’ve seen several traditional governance lifecycles that were more complex than this and a few that had less quality gates.

Traditional IT delivery governance

Traditional governance strategies often prove to be both onerous and ineffective in practice due to the focus on artifact generation and review. For example, delivery teams will often produce required artifacts, such as requirements documents or architecture documents, solely to pass through the quality gate. The implication is that these artifacts often reflect what the team believes the governing body wants to see, and that may not be what the team is actually doing. The result is a governance façade that often injects risk, cost, and time into the team efforts: the exact opposite of what good governance should be about.

Lean IT governance, on the other hand, is a lightweight approach to IT governance that is based on motivating and enabling IT professionals to do what is best for your organization. Lean IT governance strives to find lightweight, collaborative strategies to address governance areas. It does this by focusing on risk mitigation, not on artifact generation, by leading people not by commanding them, and by enabling people by making the “right things to do” the “easy things to do”.

The following table compares and contrasts traditional and lean approaches to IT governance. The table also indicates where each governance area is addressed by the Disciplined Agile (DA) toolkit.

Governance Area Traditional Strategy Lean Strategy Disciplined Agile Implementation
Common roadmaps – What should we be doing as an organization? How should we be doing it? Detailed technical and business architecture models

Architectural reviews to ensure conformance

High-level technical and business roadmaps/models

Architecture owners embedded in teams

Enterprise IT professionals work collaboratively with teams

Product Management is responsible for producing and supporting business roadmap

Enterprise Architecture is responsible for producing and supporting technical roadmap

Decision rights and processes – Who is responsible for doing and deciding things? Defined roles and responsibilities

Defined organization structure

Teams are empowered with responsibility and authority to fulfill their mission

Defined roles and responsibilities

Defined organization structure

Self-organizing teams with appropriate governance

Robust set of agile roles defined for both delivery teams and for enterprise IT

People Management is responsible for supporting creation of effective teams

Exception and escalation processes – How do we work together to address unexpected issues or problems? Defined exception and escalation procedures

Defined roles and responsibilities

Defined organizational structure

Teams are empowered with responsibility and authority to fulfill their mission

Defined roles and responsibilities

Defined organization structure

Defined Enterprise IT workflow of DA 2.x

Self-organizing teams

Teams are enterprise aware and expect to work with each other

Defined roles and responsibilities

Governing body – Who is responsible for governing and how do they go about doing it? IT Governance Team

(Optional) Topic specific (e.g. data governance, security governance) teams formed to address those specific issues

IT governance team

Topic-specific governance is built into those processes

IT governance team formed if and when needed

Enterprise IT teams self-organize to address topic-specific governance activities

Investment in IT – How can we spend money on IT wisely? Quality gate(s) for assessing financial viability Light-weight milestones

Continuous financial review

Portfolio Management is responsible for making and monitoring IT investment decisions

Light-weight milestones: Shared Vision and Project Viability

Product Owners are responsible for monitoring team finances

Iteration wrap up includes explicit go-forward decision

Knowledge sharing – How can we learn together and promote common understanding across the organization? Training and education programs

Coaching and mentoring

Communities of practice (CoPs)/Guilds

Centers of Excellence (CoEs)

Same Continuous Improvement focuses on sharing learnings across teams

Improve Team Process and Environment process goal

Support for CoPs and CoEs

Metrics and monitoring – How can we gather intelligence to make better decisions? Metrics gathering (automated and manual) and reporting

Status reporting

Goal-Question-Metric (GQM)

Automated dashboards

Manual metrics gathering (as needed, very limited)

Light-weight GQM

Automated dashboards (Development and Operational Intelligence)

Support for light-weight GQM

Metrics and monitoring built into each process blade

Procedures and guidelines (guidance) – How do we do what we do? Defined, and often comprehensive, guidance and templates Critical guidance is captured in a light weight manner

Collaborative development of guidance

Teams are enterprise aware and expect to follow appropriate guidance

Each process blade includes development of appropriate guidance

Quality – Is the quality of our IT assets sufficient? Quality gates


Automated quality metrics

Organizational guidance

Automated quality metrics

Organizational guidance

Build quality in from the start

Quality strategies built into delivery process via Accelerate Value Delivery, Improve Quality, and Align with Enterprise Direction process goals

Reuse Engineering promotes ways for teams to rescue and reuse assets

Enterprise Architecture promotes greater consistency across teams via common technical roadmap and strategy

Data Management responsible for promoting greater data quality

Reward and compensation – How do we recognize the work of our staff and pay them appropriately? Human Resources (HR) program for IT Same People Management addresses reward and compensation strategies
Risk mitigation – Have we taken on an acceptable level of risk given our current situation? Risk monitoring via status reporting and reviews of artifacts Risk monitoring via automated dashboards and close collaboration with teams Portfolio Management process blade addresses IT-level risk

Identify Initial Risks and Address Risk process goals build risk mitigation right into delivery process

Risk-based milestones built into delivery lifecycles

Roles and responsibilities – Who does what? Many narrowly defined roles

Roles and responsibilities are well defined

Fewer, more widely defined roles

Roles and responsibilities are defined

Delivery team roles and responsibilities defined

IT roles at scale defined

Status reporting – What is going on? Regular written status reports

Automated dashboards

Automated team dashboards

Automated portfolio dashboard

Automated dashboards (Development and Operational Intelligence)

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